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xml:lang="sr-YU" lang="sr-YU" > Saveti Dr. Zorice Prokić | Ginekologija Demetra
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Saveti Dr. Zorice Prokić
Pon-Pet 09 do 19; Sub 09-13

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Šta su to prekancerozne promene na grliću meterice?

Čitav niz promena na sluzokoži grlića materice od minimalnih poremećaja do potpune izmene sluznice sa nezrelim zloćudnim ćelijama nazivaju se stručnim nazivima "displazije" ili "cervikalne intraepitelijalne neoplazije" (skraćeno CIN). U zavnsnosti da li je zahvaćena samo donja ili srednja trećina odnsosno čitava debjina sluznice ove promene se svrstavaju u 3 stepena (CIN 1-3). One predhode nastanku raka jer donja granica sluzokože i tkiva grlića (tzv. bazalna membrana) još nije povređena. Prodorom zloćudnih ćelija u dubinu preko 1 mm nastaje rak grlića materice. Vreme koje je potrebno da prođe od začetka ovih promena do nastanka raka iznosi 3-17 godina.

Šta treba znati o Papanikolau testu?

-Papanikolau test je jednostavna i bezbolna metoda kojom se pregledaju ćelije dobijene brison sa grlića materice. Ovaj test pokazuje pojavu upale, prisustvo nenormalnih - atipičnih ćelija ili ćelija raka grlića materice.
-Za uzimanje valjanog uzorka neophodno je da prođe 5-7 dana od poslednje menstruacije ili seksualnog odnosa, a pre uzimanja birsa ne treba korisiti vaginalete i vaginalna ispiranja.

Šta je uzrok prekanceroznih promena i raka grlića materice?

Rak grlića meterice je najvećem procentu infektivne prirode. Naučnim ispitivanjima potrvđeno je da su uzročnici ovog oboljenja humani papiloma virusi (HPV). Otkriveno je preko 100 različitih tipova hpv-a od kojih su najopasniji tipovi 16 i 18. Pored virusa, u nastanku oboljenja značajnu ulogu imaju i pušenje, rano stupanje u seksualne odnose, veći broj partnera, loši socioekonomski uslovi života, imunodeficijentna oboljenja i dr.

Koliko je čest rak grlića materice?

Rak grlića materice nalazi se na drugom mestu prema učestalosti među zloćudnim tumorima polnih organa žena, odmah iza raka dojke. Od ukupnog broja žena obolelih od raka u Vojvodini rak grlića materice je opet na drugom mestu. Srbija ima najveću učestalost raka grlića materice (24,3 na 100 000 stanovnika) u odnosu na sve druge republike bivše Jugoslavije - to je ujedno i jedna od najvećih učestalosti u Evropi.

Koji su simptomi prekanceroznih promena i početnog raka grlića materice?

U početku prekancerozne promene ne daju simptome i otkriju se slučajno. Sukrvica i krvarenje iz vagine posle seksualnog odnosa je najčešće prvi znak. Neuredno krvarenje koje nije u vezi sa menstruacijom zahteva pregled grlića materice, kao i pojačan vaginalni sekret i iscedak, posebno onaj neprijatnog mirisa pomešan sa sukrvicom.

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